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The Consumer Guide to
Non-Contact Level Gauges

Guide Description

A newly updated and completely independent guide to the world's ultrasonic, laser, and radar non-contact level gauges ranked by performance and supplier.

The guide contains technical information about evaluating and applying these level gauges with pointers for installation, such as material, vapor, vessel, sensor, and electrical considerations. Tables include the types of level gauges and selected features that are available from each supplier, along with their country of origin or source.

This guide is indispensable for designers, engineers, owners and end users of level gauges. See where your level gauge ranks and use this guide to help you choose your next ultrasonic, laser, or radar level gauge.

 

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Table Of Contents
  • 0.0   Disclaimer
  • 1.0   Executive Summary
  • 2.0   Level Measurement Systems
    • 2.1   Material Interfaces
    • 2.2   Level Measurement Sensors and Transmitters
    • 2.3   Mechanical Level Measurement Systems
    • 2.4   Level Measurement Systems With Fluid Contact
    • 2.5   Level Measurement Systems Without Fluid Contact
    • 2.6   Externally-Mounted Level Measurement Systems
    • 2.7   Open Channel Flow Measurement Sytems
    • 2.8   Measured Quantity
    • 2.9   Typical Applications
  • 3.0   Non-Contact Level Measurement Technology
    • 3.1   Laser Level Measurement
    • 3.2   Non-Contact Radar Level Measurement
    • 3.3   Ultrasonic Level Measurement
    • 3.4   Total Beam Angle
    • 3.5   Sensor Size and Excitation Frequency
  • 4.0   Transmitter Design
    • 4.1   Analog Transmitters
    • 4.2   Digital Transmitters
    • 4.3   Fieldbus Transmitters
  • 5.0   Supplier Data
    • 5.1   Process Limits
    • 5.2   Ambient Limits
    • 5.3   Installation/Maintenance (Sensor)
    • 5.4   Transmitter
    • 5.5   Installation/Maintenance (Transmitter)
    • 5.6   Reference Performance
    • 5.7   Operating Effects (Sensor and Transmitter)
  • 6.0   Supplier Data Analysis
    • 6.1   Process Limits
    • 6.2   Ambient Limits
    • 6.3   Installation/Maintenance (Sensor)
    • 6.4   Transmitter
    • 6.5   Installation/Maintenance (Transmitter)
    • 6.6   Reference Performance
    • 6.7   Operating Effects
  • 7.0   Summary of Analysis
  • 8.0   Level Measurement System Performance
    • 8.1   Accuracy Statements
    • 8.2   Measurement Range
    • 8.3   Data Analysis
  • 9.0   Reference Performance
    • 9.1   Level Sensor
    • 9.2   Effect of Transmitter Accuracy on Level Measurement
    • 9.3   Digital Output vs. Analog Output Performance
  • 10.0   Actual Performance
    • 10.1   Ambient Temperature Effects
    • 10.2   Operating Temperature Effects (Sensor)
    • 10.3   Process Temperature Effects
    • 10.4   Process Pressure Effects
    • 10.5   Composition Effects
    • 10.6   Speed of Ultrasonic Entery in the Vapor Space
    • 10.7   Effects of Level Measurement Error
  • 11.0   Supplier Performance Claims
    • 11.1   High Rangedown
    • 11.2   High Accuracy
    • 11.3   Measurement Not Affected by Temperature
    • 11.4   Measurement Not Affected by Dielectric Constant
    • 11.5   Measure Large Distances
  • 12.0   Installation Considerations
    • 12.1   Characteristics of the Material
    • 12.2   Vapor Considerations
    • 12.3   Vessel Considerations
    • 12.4   Sensor Considerations
    • 12.5   Electrical Installation
    • 12.6   Level Transmitter Calibration
    • 12.7   Ambient Conditions
  • 13.0   Accessories
    • 13.1   Level Sensors
    • 13.2   Level Transmitters
    • 13.3   Level Transmitter Signals
  • 14.0   Explanation of Attachments
  • 15.0   Non-Contact Level Gauge Supplier Profiles
    • 15.1   The Major Suppliers of Non-Contact Level Gauges
    • 15.2   Other Suppliers of Non-Contact Level Gauges
  •  
  • Attachments
    •   Non-Contact Level Gauge Categories
    •   Availability of Selected Features
    •   Reference Accuracy by Various Tank Heights
      • 2000mm
      • 5000mm
      • 10000mm
    • Products and Specifications by Supplier
  •  
  • About the Authors
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC
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