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This issue sponsored by Spitzer and Boyes, LLC

July 2013

Glass Membrane pH Sensors (Part 2 of 3)

When the surface of silicate glasses containing alkali metals such as lithium contact water, the alkali metals undergo an ion-exchange reaction. In this process, an alkali metal ion from the glass goes into solution and a hydrogen ion takes its place in the glass matrix. It is this reaction at the glass surface that results in the development of an electrical potential at the phase boundary. click for more...

Part III: Open Channel Flowmeter Problems

For the past two months, I asked what can be wrong with a flowmeter and referred to an article where an open-channel measurement (used to measure the wastewater effluent prior to the pumping station) was suspected to be "way off." A number of end-users and consultants provided responses-and their suggestions varied all over the map. click for more...

Variable Area Flowmeter Accuracy Statements

Flowmeters that have an accuracy statement expressed as a percentage of actual flow usually have a well-defined output at zero flow. For example, with no flow, vortex shedders do not shed vortices, positive-displacement flowmeters do not rotate, and differential-pressure flowmeters exhibit zero pressure differential. All of these are well-defined conditions. This is not the case with variable area flowmeters where the float may fall, but it will not necessarily be at a well-defined position. click for more...



In addition to over 35 years of experience as an instrument user, consultant, and expert witness, David W Spitzer has written over 10 books and 250 articles about flow measurement, level measurement, instrumentation, and process control. David (with Walt Boyes) is the author of seven Consumer Guides to various industrial flow and level technologies. David teaches his flow measurement seminars in both English and Portuguese.

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC provides engineering, technical writing, training seminars, strategic marketing consulting, distribution consulting, and expert witness services worldwide, and can be contacted at +1.845.623.1830 or www.spitzerandboyes.com.


ISSN 1538-5280
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