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DAVID W SPITZER'S E-ZINE (December 2022)


Level Gauges (Part 4 of 4) by David W Spitzer and Walt Boyes

Level measurement systems that have non-mechanical sensors that do not contact the material include laser, non-contact radar, and ultrasonic level measurement technologies. In general, these level measurement systems use level sensors that are located above the material and are not directly exposed to the material. These sensors are exposed to the environment of the material in normal operation and can come in contact with the material when the level of the material is excessively high.

Total Plant Flowmeter for Sewage Flow by David W Spitzer

Previous articles described the sewage collection systems for two adjacent sewage districts and how the flowmeters measuring the sewage generated by the first sewage district measured higher than the actual sewage flow.

Level Transmitter Orientation by David W Spitzer

What is the suggested orientation of a capacitance level probe that is intended to measure the interface level in a vertical tank and must be installed on the side of the tank?


In addition to over 40 years of experience as an instrument user, consultant and expert witness, David W Spitzer has written over 10 books and 500 articles about flow measurement, level measurement, instrumentation and process control. David teaches his flow measurement seminars in both English and Portuguese.


Spitzer and Boyes, LLC provides engineering, technical writing, training seminars, strategic marketing consulting and expert witness services worldwide.


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